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Glossary (Ingredients and Terms)
Indian Terms English Translation Purpose
Ajwain Carom seeds Used to provide spice in Indian dishes.
Atta Whole wheat flour Used in preparing Indian bread
Adrak Ginger Used as a whole or paste to give a strong flavor
Amchur Dried mango powder Used to give a sour taste to a curry
Atta Whole wheat flour Used for bread
Badam Almond Used used mainly in sweets and curries
Baigan Eggplant Vegetable
Besan Flour Chick Peas Flour ,Bengal gram flour Has a nutty earthy flavor, essential ingredient in South Asian dishes
Chana Dal Gram Lentil Bengal gram lentil
Chironji Chiroli Seeds Used as garnish decoration in Indian sweets
Chikoo Sapodilla Fruit
Cholay Chick Peas Split chick peas used to make curries.
Chaas Butter Milk Prepared by mixing 1 cup yogurt with 2 cups of water
Dhaniya Coriander Leaves Fresh herb leaves used in Indian food as garnish or as an ingredient
Dhaniya Seeds Coriander Seeds Circular shaped coriander dried seeds used as a whole or powdered to flavor  Indian dishes
Dabeli Masala Spice Powder Available in Indian stores, used in some Indian Dishes for giving flavor and spice
Dahi Yogurt Plain yogurt is made from whole or non fat milk
Dal chini Cinnamon Stick Dry sticks used to flavor curries and rice
Ghee Clarified Butter  Semi fluid butter used in Indian cooking
Green Elaichi Green Cardamom Has a sweet flavor and is used in flavoring mostly sweet dishes
Gobi Cauliflower Vegetable
Garam Masala Indian Spice Powder Spices powdered together and used to flavor most of the Indian curries. Dry roast in a hot pan 200 g Dried coriander seeds, add to this 50 g cumin seeds, 20 g Black cardamom, 20 g cloves, cinnamon sticks 10 sticks, 8 to 10 Bay leaves. 20 G Peppercorns, 20 G small cardamom and 30 G fennel seeds. Roast together for another 10 minutes, close gas burner and allow this to cool. In a coffee grinder grind all the ingredients to a fine powder, mix and sieve the mixture and store in an air tight container.
Gur Jaggery Sweet molasses used in making some Indian dishes and sweets Dishes and sweets
Hari Mirchi Green Chillies/ Thai chilies Fresh green chilies, can be used instead of dried red chilies
Hing Asafetida A strong flavored spice used to flavor Indian curries.
Haldi Turmeric spice, yellow colored powder, used in Indian food
  Tamarind Used to provide sour taste in Indian food.
Jeera Cumin Seeds Indian spice with an earthy flavor , used a whole or powdered
Kala Namak Black Salt Coarse in texture with a pungent flavor
Kaju Cashew Dry fruit used in Indian dishes
Khoya (Mawa) Dried whole milk/thickened milk Used as a thickener and to give creaminess to Indian curry dishes
Kaali Mirchi Peppercorn Used as whole or powdered to make black pepper
Kishmish Raisins Used to flavor the food
Kesar Saffron Spice derived from a flower
Kadai Indian cooking wok Circular deep pan
Kadi Patta Curry Leaves Aromatic leaf , used in Indian cooking
Lavang Cloves Dried flower like buds , flavored spice
Lasoon Garlic Used to flavor Indian curries or dishes
Laal Sukhi Mirchi Dried red chilies Spice with a pungent flavor  and spicy taste
Methi Leaves Fenugreek Leaves Fresh leaves (methi leaves ) / Dried leaves(kasoori methi)
Methi Seeds Fenugreek seeds Dried fenugreek seeds
Masoor Dal Red Split Lentils Used in Indian curries
Mutter Green peas Used fresh or frozen in Indian curries
Moong Dal Green Gram Yellow split  peas
Maida Refined All Purpose Flour  
Nariyal Coconut Used fresh or dried in Indian dishes
Naan Indian Bread Used with Indian curries
Paneer Cottage Cheese Made from milk, used in Indian curries
Pudina Mint leaves  
Pista Pistachios Dry fruit used in Indian sweets
Palak Spinach Vegetable
Pyaaz Onion Vegetable
Rajma Kidney Beans  
Red Chilli Powder Cayenne Powder Red colored spicy powder
Rai Mustard Seeds  
Rava Semolina Flour Cream of wheat
Saunf  Powder Fennel Seeds Seeds that have licorice properties
Toor  Dal Split pigeon peas Lentil used to prepare curry
Tawa Griddle  
Tandoori Color Orange Food Color Food coloring
Tej Patta Bay Leaves Aromatic leaf, used fresh or dried leaf in Indian cooking
Udad Dal Black Gram Lentil Lentil used as whole or splity
Vaal Dal Green Lima Beans Used in Indian curries
White Til Seeds Sesame seeds Nutty flavor
Conversion Tables
Weights & Measures Liquid Measures
Metric Imperial Metric Imperial
15g ½ oz    30 ml 1 fl oz
30g 1 oz 60 ml 2 fl oz
60g 2 oz 100 ml 3 fl oz
90g 3 oz 125 ml 4 fl oz (¼ pint)
125g 4 oz (1/4 lb) 150 ml 5 fl oz
155g 5 oz 190 ml 6 fl oz
185g 6 oz 250 ml 8 fl oz(½ pint)
220g 7 oz 300 ml 10 fl oz
250g 8 oz (1/2 lb) 500 ml 16 fl oz (1 pint)
280g 9 oz 600 ml 20 fl oz
315g 10 oz 1000 ml 2 pints
345g 11 oz    
375g 12 oz (3/4 lb)    
410g 13 oz    
440g 14 oz    
470g 15 oz    
500g 16 oz (1 lb)    
750g 24 oz (1½ lb)    
1 kg 30 oz (2 lb)    
Some other Measures:    
1 cup (liquid) 8 fl oz    
1 cup (dry ingredients) 225g    
1 Teaspoon (tsp) 5 ml    
1 Tablespoon (tbsp) 3 tsp/15 ml    
1 pinch ⅛ teaspoon